All ships, excluding Espionage Probes, have rapid fire and all excel against different ship types during combat. But there exists a combat chain in game. Though the game tells you otherwise, this exists and was tested in the OGame Speed Sim. It is as follows:
Light & Heavy Fighters > Destroyers
Destroyers > Death Stars
Death Stars > Battlecruisers
Battlecruisers > Battleships
Battleships > Cruisers
Cruisers > Light Fighters
- Bombers can actually beat Battleships in a 2 to 1 ratio and can also draw Battlecruisers 2 to 1 (with heavy losses).